Evaluation of the Level of Biosecurity Measures Adopted in Broiler Farms Based on Manure Bacterial Load Examination in Khartoum State, Sudan

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.main##

  •   Mona Ahmed Babiker Ahmed

  •   Atif Elamin Abdelgadir

  •   Hayfa Mohammed Ismail

Abstract

This study was conducted to evaluate the level of adopted biosecurity measures in broiler farms based on manure bacterial load examination in Khartoum State, Sudan. To achieve the goal, a cross sectional study was conducted. Data and manure samples were collected from January to September 2018 from 12 close system broiler farms according to Non-probability Multistage Cluster Sampling Method in Khartoum, Khartoum North (Bahri), and Omdurman localities (4 for each). A standardized questionnaire was also conducted and used for data collection. A total of 12 manure samples were collected from one chosen broiler house in each farm to check the TVCs. All collected Data were subjected to descriptive and analytical statistic such as Chi square and ANOVA using SPSS. The Results of external biosecurity measures revealed that half of the total farms examined (50%) were at a distance between 500 m to 1km from the nearest poultry farm. The same percentage was obtained for no manure spreading from neighboring farms. However, frequent passage of other farms vehicles via near public road was reported in 50% of participating farms. The internal biosecurity results showed that all the examined farms (100%) prohibiting manure storage beside 75.0% of them remove the manure through the dirty area. Furthermore, workers protective wearing when contact waste and hygiene practicing after removing waste sometimes practiced by 75.0% of the participant farms. The mean of bacterial TVCs in manure samples was found below the cut-off level (6.01±0.78 cfu/g) with 95% confidence intervals of 4.48-7.37, 5.20-6.79, and 4.39-7.84 and mean TVC of 5.93±0.90, 6.00±0.50, and 6.11±1.08 cfu/g for Khartoum, Khartoum North, and Omdorman, respectively. No significant difference was obtained for log means of bacterial TVCs and farm location (F value=0.047 and P-value=0.955). In conclusion, despite that the bacterial counts in manure samples were below the cut-off level, poor hygienic practices were detected. Formulation of suitable procedures and regulations by official authorities for implementing biosecurity measures is recommended.


Keywords: Broiler farms, external biosecurity, internal biosecurity, Manure Sudan

References

F. O. Elghouth, O. E. Yassin, T. E. Angara, A. Wahab, “Some Management and Economic Aspects of Broiler Production in Khartoum State,” Journal of Agricultural and Veterinary Sciences, 1(14): 80-85, 2013.

A. D. Ahmed, “Hematological and Biochemical Profile of Blood of Indigenous Chicks in Sudan,” Master Thesis, University of Khartoum, 2009.

Agricultural census – 2008, Ministry of Agriculture, Animal Resources and Irrigation. Khartoum State, Sudan, 2009.

H. A. Jensen, “Paradigm and Visions: Network for Poultry Production in Developing Countries,” In: F Dolberg and P H Petersen (eds.) Poultry as a Tool in Poverty Eradication and Promotion of Gender Equality Proceedings of a workshop, March 22-26, 1999, Tune Landboskole, Denmark.

T. J. Baugst, M. A. Johnson, “Avian Infectious Iaryngotracheitis: Virus-host Interactions in Relation to Prospects for Eradication,” Avian Pathol, 24(3): 373-391, 1995.

M. F. Sulieman, “Egg Characteristics, Genetic and Phenotypic Relationships of Body Weight at Various Ages in Indigenous Chickens,” Master Thesis, University of Khartoum, 1996.

H. A. Ahmed, “Bacterial Contamination of Chicken Carcasses at Abattoir in Khartoum State, Sudan,” A dissertation Submitted to Sudan University of Science and Technology, 2014.

J. B. Trevor, “Poultry Health and Disease Control in Developing Countries,” Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Poultry Development Review, 2006. http://www.fao.org/3/al729e/al729e00.pdf.

J. Sture, S. Whitby, D. Perkins, “Biosafety, Biosecurity and Internationally Mandated Regulatory Regimes: Compliance Mechanisms for Education and Global Health Security,” Med ConflSurviv, 29(4): 289-321, 2013.

R. S. I. Hamed, “Finding the Optimal Location for New ATM Using GIS Technologies,” Ph.D. Thesis,Sudan University of Science and Technology, 2016.‏

H. A. Wagge Alla, “Dimensions and Impact of Application of Extension, Laws, and Regulations, Applied Research and Quality Control on Poultry Industry in Khartoum State,” Ph.D. Thesis, Sudan Academy for Sciences, Khartoum, Sudan, 2011.

M. Thrusfield, Veterinary Epidemiology. 3rd ed. Black well Science Ltd. United Kingdom, 2007.

J. G. Cappuccino, N. Sherman, “Microbiology: A Laboratory Manual,” 6th Edition, San Francisco: Pearson/Benjamin Cummings, 2002.

K. L. Jennifer, L. A. Beaudette, M. Hart, P. Moutoglis, J. N. Klironomos, H. Lee, J. T. Trevors, “Methods of Studying Soil Microbial Diversity (Review),” Journal of Microbiological Methods, 58(2): 169-188, 2004.

J. Skora, K. Matusiak, P. Wojewodzki, A. Nowak, M. Sulyok, A. Ligocka, M.Okrasa, J. Hermann, B. Gutarowska, “Evaluation of Microbiological and Chemical Contaminants in Poultry Farms,” Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, 13(2): 192, 2016.

E. A. Mustafa, H. A. A. Babeker, “Evaluation of the Efficacy of Cleaning and Disinfection in Broiler Farms Between Rest Periods in Khartoum State, Sudan,” World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2(7): 109-119, 2018.

M. A. Mahmoud, A. E. Abdelgadir, M. I. Hayfa, “Evaluation of Biosecurity Measures on Broiler farms in Khartoum, Sudan,” Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health, 6(5): 138-144, 2014.

C. Stephen, “Best Practice Management for Meat Chicken Production in New South Wales–Manual 2 (Meat Chicken Growing Management),” NSW Department of Primary Industries, 2012.

S. A. Lister, “Biosecurity in poultry management,” In Poultry diseases, WB Saunders, 48-65, 2008.

S. Van Steenwinkel, S. Ribbens, E.Ducheyne, E. Goossens, J.Dewulf, “Assessing Biosecurity Practices, Movements and Densities of Poultry Sites Across Belgium, Resulting in Different Farm Risk-groups for Infectious Disease Introduction and Spread,” Prev. Vet. Med., 98(4): 259-270, 2011.

E. A. Mustafa, E. M. Hamad, M. M. O. Elhassan, A. M. Salman, M. M. E. Elsiddig, M. A. Lamyia, “Disposal of Dead Birds and Manure in Poultry Farms under Different Production and Management Systems in Khartoum State, Sudan,” World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical 7(11): 61-70, 2018a.

E. Sudarnika, Y. Ridwan, A. Z. lya, C. Basri, D. W. Lukman, T. Sunartatie, B. A. Wibowo, A. Sugama, P. G. Hermans, A. J. Nell, “Biosecurity Measures on Broiler Farms in Subang, West Java Indonesia,” The 1st Congress of Southeast Asia Veterinary School Association, Bogor, Indonesia, 2010.

T. M. Williams, M. Mboya, H. O. Chadha, “Assessment of Biosecurity Initiatives on Broiler Farms in Khartoum,” Sudan. African Journal of Poultry Farming, 4(6): 159-165, 2016.

G. Arzey, I. Littleton, “NSW Biosecurity Guidelines for Free Range Poultry Farm,” NSW Department of Primary Industries, Orange, NSW, 2007.

W. M. J. B. Wijesinghe, P. G. J. C. De Silva, S. P. Gunaratne, “Evaluation of Biosecurity Status in Commercial Broiler Farms in Sri Lanka,” International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, 7(4): 2250-3153, 2017.

K. J. Barker, J. L. Purswell, J. D. Davis, H. M. Parker, M. T. Kidd, C. D. McDaniel, A. S. Kiess, “Distribution of Bacteria at Different Poultry Litter Depths,” Int. J. Poult. Sci., 9: 10–13, 2010.

M. El-Jalil, A. Zinedine, M. Faid, “Some Microbiological and Chemical Properties of Poultry Wastes Manure After Lactic Acid Fermentation,” International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 10(4): 405-411, 2008.

G. Kostadinova, G. Petkov, S. Denev, Ch. Miteva, R. Stefanova, T. Penev, “Microbial Pollution of Manure, Litter, Air and Soil in a Poultry Farm,” Bulg J Agric Sci., 20(1): 56-65, 2014.

S. Devi, C. R. Sharma, K. Singh, “Microbiological Biodiversity in Poultry and Paddy Straw Wastes in Composting Systems,” Braz J Microbiol, 43(1): 288-296, 2012.

J. Lu, S. Sanchez, C. Hofacre, J. J. Maurer, B. G. Harmon, M. D. Lee, “Evaluation of Broiler Litter with Reference to the Microbial Composition as Assessed by Using 16S rRNA and Functional Gene Markers,” Applied and environmental microbiology, 69(2): 901-908, 2003.

A. S. Tasistro, D. E. Kissel, P. B. Bush, “Spatial Variability of Broiler Litter Composition in a Chicken House,” Journal of applied poultry research 13(1): 29-43, 2004.

H. Widell, “Industrial Scale Biomass Combustion Plants: Engineering Issues and Operation,” Denmark: Aalborg EnergieTEchnik (AET), 2013.

Z. Chen, X. Jiang, “Microbiological Safety of Chicken Litter or Chicken Litter-based Organic Fertilizer: A Review,” Agriculture, 4(1): 1–29, 2014.

M. Terzich, M. J. Pope, T. E. Cherry, J.Hollinger, “Survey of Pathogens in Poultry Litter in the United States,” J. Appl. Poult. Res., 9(3): 287-291, 2000.

K. S. Macklin, J. B. Hess, S. F. Bilgili, R. A. Norton, “Effects of In-house Composting of Litter on Bacterial Levels,” J. Applied Poult. Res., 15(4): 531-537, 2006.

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.details##

How to Cite
Babiker Ahmed, M. A., Abdelgadir, A. E., & Ismail, H. M. (2021). Evaluation of the Level of Biosecurity Measures Adopted in Broiler Farms Based on Manure Bacterial Load Examination in Khartoum State, Sudan. European Journal of Veterinary Medicine, 1(2), 1-5. https://doi.org/10.24018/ejvetmed.2021.1.2.11